This Chapter opens with a discussion of the famous "Turing test" - a proposal by the computer pioneer Alan Turing for a way to detect the presence or absence of "thought" in a machine. From there, we go on to an abridged history of Artificial Intelligence. This covers programs that can - to some degree - play games, prove theorems, solve problems, compose music, do mathematics, and use "natural language" (e.g., English).